Investigating the Effect of Positive Organizational Behavior on Job Demand among Librarians in NigeriaAdeyemi Adewale Akinolash1* and Clement Sule Akor2*
Job demand is an important construct that brings negative impacts on librarians’ job outcome. Despite the effect of positive organizational constructs such as job characteristics, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior, job demand remain a challenge. The study investigated the effect of positive organizational behavior on job demand among librarians in Nigeria. The study employed survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 624 librarians from 38 public universities in Southern Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that the joint combine effect of positive organization behavior such job characteristics (β=.001, p>.05), work engagement (β= .112, p<.05) and organizational citizenship behavior (β=.214, p<.05) significantly influenced job demand among librarians in Nigeria. The study concluded that positive organizational behavior contribute to low level of job demand among librarians in Nigeria and library management should maintain good work practice to prevent job demand.
Job Demand, Librarians, Positive Organizational Behavior.
Positive organizational behavior are related and contributed to the positive psychological well- being of employees. Scholars in the field of psychological research have described them as positive components of the organization that improve employees’ lifestyle and their well-being. They also provide enabling environment for organizations to achieve their goals through having high levels of productivity and performance. Soane, Truss, Alfes, Shantz and Gatenby (2012) explained that organizational citizenship behavior, understanding of job characteristics and work engagement are positive outcome of organizational behavior due to the fact that employees are not only engulfed with positive psychological and physical enablement, but are also motivated by the positive organizational outcome.
Job demand is a construct that brings setback to employees’ performance and job accomplishment. When librarians are having roles-conflicts and extra roles to play in the organization, they may experience burnout due to lack of enabled energy and resources to actualize their potentials for the organization. Job demand and positive organizational behavior Are psychological dimensions that occur in organizations? In a situation where there is job demand and inadequate resources, librarians become burnout but when there are sufficient resources, invariably, they become positive, productive and engaged in their work. Notably, numerous studies have confirmed that positive psychological constructs such as job characteristics, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior are established in job resources and not with job demands. On the other hand, job burnout is significant to both job resources and demands resources due to its specific nature and vulnerability to the library (Bakker, Albrecht & Leiter, 2011).
Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the combined effect of positive organizational behavior on job demand among librarians in Nigeria.
The specific objectives are to:
• Find out the effect of job demand among librarians in university libraries in Nigeria.
• Identify the effect of organizational positive behavior among librarians in university libraries in Nigeria.
• Find out the effect of positive organizational behaviors on job demand among librarians in Nigeria.
In order to achieve the research objectives, the following questions are posed:
1. What is the effect of job demand among librarians in Nigeria?
2. What is the effect of organizational positive behavior among librarians in Nigeria?
3. What is the effect of positive organizational behaviors on job demand among librarians in Nigeria?
The following research hypothesis was tested in the study at 0.05 level of significance: Positive organizational behavior will not jointly influence job demand of librarians in Nigeria.
Studies have confirmed that positive organization behavior are established on the availability of job resources and not job demands, while job stress is significant to both job resources and job demands aspect of the work (Bakker, Albrecht & Loiter, 2011). Job demands and resources play essential role on positive organization behavior and job stress, and this led to the development of “The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model”. The model explained the negative, unfavorable and motivational aspects of work conditions as well as their effects on organizational personnel safety and performance. Job demands aspect of the model was defined by Bakker, Demerouti and Sanz-Vergel (2014) as the physiological, cognitive, psychological, social and sustainable effect of the job. Job demands could either be physical, cognitive, and psychological cost of doing a job. Job Resources was also defined by Bakker, et al. (2014) as the availability of resources employees need to complete the job, reducing job demands and promoting organizational productivity and employees’ development. Demerouti et al. (2001) viewed job resources as essential factor that shows relationship between employees’ engagement, autonomy and reward system; and relationship between co-workers, supervisors and the organization. Furthermore, the model described job stress as high level of job demands while positive Organization behaviors were depicted as employees being dedicated and showing enthusiasm as a result of high level of resources in the organization (Bakker, Demerouti, De Boer & Schaufeli, 2003). The job demands-resources model suggests that exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy of employees will be unbeneficial to performance, individual productivity and organizations. The model assesses the range to which positive organizational construct foretell job outcomes such as performance, productivity and commitment (Rich, LePine & Crawford, 2010).
Schaufeli and Bakker (2004) noted that job demand and job resources are components of employees’ psychological well-being and they mediate between other components such as health-impairment and motivational processes. This shows that, when employees are exposed to stress, they may not indicate symptoms of burnout, but find pleasurable ways of dealing with the stress. Neal and Griffin, (2004) laid emphasis on the aspect of workplace safety, and the interest of the researchers was basically on job demand outcomes such as unsafe behavior accidents, adverse events, and injuries. This support the study of Laschinger and Leiter (2006), according to their findings, job demand among health workers and other related jobs have been found to positively influence adverse events. This implies that job stress positively influences accidents and injuries, unsafe behavior and adverse events. It also shows an imbalance and adverse effect on job demand as a result of inadequacy of resources to actualize employees’ assigned task. Seemingly, the job demand factors weaken engaged employees due to its negative effect on their health, families and other related negative implications.
According to Chirkowska-Smolak (2009), various studies have identified similar factors leading to job demand such as lack of autonomy and support, poor interpersonal relations, role conflict, and value conflict. This shows a deliberate effect of job demand as against employees’ intension for pro-activeness in a state of overburden. It implies that employees are not allowed to be independent on their job due to role-conflict and task interruption. Studies have also indicated some levels of uncertainty on the existence of job demand and some positive organizational constructs. However, Maslach and Leiter (2008) pointed out five aspects of organizational environmental effect pertinent to positive organizational constructs that could curtail employees’ stress and job demand in organizations; they include job control, compensation and acknowledgement, objectivity and values. These five areas of work environment will eliminate employees’ job demand and propel them for effectiveness in their various organizations and (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Strain Process
The strain process
The strain process is shown in the below figure (Figure 1).
The motivational process
The motivational process is shown in the below figure (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Job Demand-Resources Model Adapted from Schaufeli & Bakker, (2004)
The Conceptual Model of the effect of positive organization behavior on job demand among of Librarians in Nigeria in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Conceptual Model Adapted Job Characteristics
The conceptual model is shown in below figure.
The road map for the effect of positive organizational behaviors on job demand among librarians in Nigeria has three main components as shown in the conceptual model. In this conceptual model are job characteristics, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior on librarians in Nigeria. Job characteristics as a concept, is widely known and described as a construct that determines librarians work design, work outcome and extent to which a job is structured in a particular organization. Job characteristics comprises of five indicators which are skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy, Feedback. Skill variety is described as different activities carried out by librarians to actualize their performance in the organization. Task significance means having employees substantial impact on the organization performance and other librarians. Task identity means identifying portions of work and embarking on the task with the aim of visible results. Autonomy refers to extensive, independent, and will of librarians to determine the procedures used for the job while feedback entails providing individuals with direct and adequate information about employees’ performance (Hackman & Oldham, 1980).
Work engagement is another variable in this study. It is considered as one of the most powerful construct for effective organizational control within an organization. Work engagement is a state of fulfillment librarians derived in accomplishing a particular task. It involves harnessing the needed energy and attitude to achieve the best desired result. Work engagement comprises three constructs which are vigor, dedication and absorption. Vigour is the state of having increased level of strength, readiness to put liveliness into one’s effort and ability to work in tough times. Dedication means librarians’ involvement in a task and showing a sense of belonging, having enthusiasm about the work. Absorption implies librarians being focused on their job, having felt time passes but being unwilling to abandon the task.
Furthermore, literature has described organizational citizenship behavior, the third variable of this study as a behavior that is characterized by discretion and voluntary attitude that are not directly recognized by the organization management or rewarded but add value to the growth and effectiveness of the organization. It has five main variables, which are altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. Altruism is a voluntary action whereby librarians’ assist their colleagues on challenges they are having on the job. Conscientiousness refers to librarians working beyond the norms. Courtesy is the ability to avoid problems with other librarians and abuse of human rights of others. Sportsmanship consists of any actions tolerating less than ideal circumstances without complaints. Civic virtue is a behavior showing willingness to responsibly participate in the functioning of the organization.
The dependent variable in this model is job burnout of librarians in Nigeria. Job burnout is a state of being emotional, mental and physical exhaustion affected by persistent stress in the workplace. It comprises three variables which are exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy. Exhaustion, also called emotional exhaustion, is usually regarded as the most important aspect of job burnout and is characterized by a feeling of being over-extended and depletion of one’s emotional resources (“feeling emotionally drained”). Cynicism, which refers to depersonalization, represents the interpersonal component of job burnout and is characterized by a negative, detached, and depersonalized attitude towards one’s work, coworkers, and the people to whom one’s work is directed. Inefficacy could be described as ineffectiveness, or reduced personal accomplishment, which is the self-evaluation component of job burnout and it, is characterized by feelings of declining competence and productivity at work and of increased inability to solve problems that arise in one’s work.
The model proposed that positive organizational psychology construct such as job characteristics, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior may become negative due to some organizational deficiency such as inadequate resources, conflict of roles and family conflict. Bakker and Demerouti (2009) found out that job demands may influence job burnout, which in turn has decreased effect on roles librarians play in the library and their environment. Job overload, lack of job control and lack of man power can also endanger employees’ attitude and health-related issues. Maslach and Leiter (2008) noted that employees’ physiological and psychological effect may occur during job burnout. Invariably, these could lead to undesired organisational results, such as occupational dissatisfaction, lack of organizational commitment, absenteeism, and turnover intension.
This study adopted the survey research design. A survey is an observational study that is used to find out the association between variables in a particular study that the researcher cannot control or manipulate. It is oriented towards ascertaining and establishing the status quo, facts or information at the time of research (Mahajan, 2010). The method is considered appropriate in order to indicate the accurate description of how organizational positive behavior interplay to influence job demand among librarians Nigeria. The population for this study consisted of all 624 librarians from all the 38 public universities (Federal and State) in Southern Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was employed to collect data for the study. The adapted research instrument was divided into four sections. They are:
It dealt with the level of job burnout of librarians. The variable contains three constructs, namely “exhaustion, Cynicism and inefficacy”. This section adapted the Burnout Inventory by Maslach C, Schaufeli W. B. & Leiter M. P (2001). The scale comprises 19 items on job burnout and a 6-scale measurement: Always-6; Very Often-5; Often-4; Sometimes-3; Rarely- 2; Almost Never-1
It dealt with job characteristics of librarians. It contains the five main constructs of the variable: “skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback.” It adapted Hackman & Oldham (1980) questionnaire scale for this study. The scale comprises 21 items statements on job characteristics of librarians and a 3-scale measurement: 3-Very Much; 2- Moderate and 2-Very Little-1.
It measures the level of work engagement of librarians. It contains three components which are vigour, dedication and absorption. This section adapted the “Utrecht Work Engagement Scale” UWES by Schaufeli & Bakker (2004). The scale comprises 17 items of work engagement and a 6-scale of measurement: Always-6; Very Often-5; Often-4; Sometimes-3; Rarely-2; Almost Never-1.
This section dealt with organizational citizenship behavior of librarians. The 20 measured of Rurkkhum & Bartlett, (2012) was used to measure the five components of organizational citizenship behavior which are “altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue.” The scale comprises 20 items and a 5-scale measurement: Very High Extent-5; High Extent-4; Some Extent-3; Low Extent-2 Very Low Extent-1.
However, the data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as frequency counts; simple percentages, tables; as well as, mean and standard deviation were used to analyses the research questions. The analysis was done with the aid of computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), 22.0 versions and multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance as shown in Table 1.
|S. No.||Geopolitical zone and state||Name of university||No of librarians||Response rate (%)|
|1||Ekiti State||Federal University, Oye-Ekiti||09||06 (66.6)|
|2||Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti||15||14 (93.3)|
|3||Lagos State||University of Lagos||23||19 (82.6)|
|4||National Open University of Nigeria||19||15 (78.9)|
|5||Lagos State University, Ojo||17||13 (76.5)|
|6||Ogun State||Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta||23||17 (73.9)|
|7||Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye||15||11 (73.3)|
|8||Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode||08||7 (87.5)|
|9||Ondo State||Federal University of Technology, Akure||14||12 (85.7)|
|10||Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba||09||07 (77.8)|
|11||Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa||07||05 (71.4)|
|12||Osun State||Osun State University, Oshogbo||14||13 (92.9)|
|13||Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife||22||19 (86.4)|
|14||Oyo State||University of Ibadan||32||26 (81.3)|
|15||Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso||14||12 (85.7)|
|16||Akwa-Ibom State||University of Uyo||15||13 (86.7)|
|17||Akwa-Ibom State University of Technology, Uyo||06||05 (83.3)|
|18||Bayelsa State||Federal University, Otuoke||11||9 (81.8)|
|19||Niger Delta University, Yenagoa||23||19 (82.6)|
|20||Cross River||University of Calabar||17||11 (64.7)|
|21||Cross River State University of Science and Technology, Calabar||11||6 (54.6)|
|22||Delta||Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurum||09||8 (88.9)|
|23||Delta State University, Abraka||21||18 (85.7)|
|24||Edo State||University of Benin||26||19 (73.1)|
|25||Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma||14||11 (78.6)|
|26||Rivers State||University of Port-Harcourt||23||17 (73.9)|
|27||Rivers State University of Science And Technology||16||9 (56.2)|
|28||Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni||09||7 (77.8)|
|Abia State||Michael OkparaUniversity of Agriculture, Umudike||8||7 (87.5)|
|Abia State University, Uturu||07||6 (85.7)|
|Anambra State||Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka||22||17 (77.3)|
|Chukwuemeka Odimegwu Ojukwu University, Uli||12||10 (83.3)|
|Ebonyi||Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Ebonyi||04||3 (75)|
|Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki||14||12 (85.7)|
|Enugu State||University of Nigeria, Nsukka||45||37 (82.2)|
|Enugu State University of Science and Technology||14||12 (85.7)|
|Imo State||Federal University of Technology, Owerri||32||29 (90.6)|
|Imo State University, Owerri||24||21 (87.5)|
Table 1: Distribution of Questionnaire and Response Rate
From Table 2, 62.5% of librarians in Nigeria were female while male librarians were 37.5%. This shows that most of the librarians working in Nigeria were female. Majority of the librarians were married 62.4% while singles were 36.6%, widowed were 1.2% while divorced respondents were 0.8%. This shows that higher percentage of the librarians had marital commitments. Over 90% of librarians in Nigeria were below the age of 50. As expected, less than 10% were 60 years and above. The highest population of librarians in Nigeria (34.1%) was found in the age range of 41-50 years. This is expected since these age ranges are the active working years in the life of a human being. It also implies that the librarians in Nigeria are relatively young.
|Length of service||Below 6 years||184||36.7|
|above 30 years||9||1.8|
Table 2: Socio-Demographic Distribution of Respondents
Over 50% of librarians in Nigeria had combined academic and professional Master’s degree and a few had PhD (4%) in Library and Information Science/Information Resources Management. This was followed by those with BSc/BA (26.7%), BLIS/BIRM (18.7%) and MSc/MA (4.6%). Librarians with Master’s degree in Library and Information Science/Masters in Information Resources Management (46.0%) constituted the highest population of the respondents. This shows that majority of the respondents had obtained professional cadre in their career. It implies that they possess adequate knowledge in their profession.
Results and Discussion
The job designation (cadre) of librarians in Nigeria shows that over 50% of the librarians were between the cadre of Librarian II and Senior Librarian, These three cadres, together with the cadres above them, are professionally-qualified librarians. Those designated as Assistant Librarians are seen as librarians-in-training. Based on this, 54% of librarians in Nigeria were professionally qualified. The length of years in service of the librarians in Nigeria shows that over 70% were between 6-15 years and below in service. Less than 30% were 16-20 years and above. The majority of the librarians were below 6 years (36.7%); others were 6-10 years (21.5%) and 11-15 years (18.1%). This shows that majority of the librarians have adequate work experience in the profession. Their length of years in service implies that they have enough work experience to make the right judgment regarding the services they rendered.The following research hypothesis was tested at α=0.05 level of significance in Table 3.
|Model||Unstandardized coefficients||Standardized coefficients||T||Sig.|
|Organizational citizenship Behavior||.385||.085||.214||4.549||.000|
R=.273a ; R2=.074; Adjusted R2=.69; F=13.354; p=0.000
a. Dependent Variable: Job demand
Table 3: Effect of the Positive Organizational Behavior on Job Demand among Librarians in Nigeria
Testing of hypothesis
The combine joint effect of positive organizational behavior which are job characteristics (β= .001, p>.05), work engagement (β=.112, p<.05) and organizational citizenship behavior (β =.214, p<.05) has a significant influence on job demand of librarians in university libraries in Nigeria. Based on this, null hypothesis was rejected. The table shows that 7% of the variation in the dependent variable (Job demand) was accounted for by the three independent variables (job characteristics, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior) (F (3,498)=13.354, Adjusted R-squared=. 069, p<.05). The p-value associated with the F-statistics was less than the 0.05 level of significance. This is an indication that the independent variable was a good predictor of job demand of librarians in Nigeria. The findings further revealed that the standardized coefficient of work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior significantly contributed more to job demand of librarians than job characteristics.
The combine joint effect of positive organizational behavior, Job characteristics (β=.001, p> .05), work engagement (β=.112, p<.05) and organizational citizenship behavior (β=.214, p <.05) jointly influenced Job demand of librarians in Nigeria. The findings agree with previous literature by Soane, Truss, Alfes, Shantz and Gatenby (2012) that organisational citizenship behavior, understanding of job characteristics and work engagement are positive outcome of organizational behavior due to the fact that employees are not only engulfed by positive psychological and physical enablement, they are also being motivated by the positive organizational outcome. Contrary to this, Bolino, Turnley, Gilstarp and Suazo (2010) had noted that in spite of a positive association between organizational citizenship behavior and other positive organization constructs, they could instigate negative result on individual employees such as job demand and intention to quit. However, the meaningful attitude librarians in university libraries in Nigeria exhibited have positive outcome on their day-to-day activities And also help them to curtail stress and job demand.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:
1. The study reveals a low level of job demand among librarians in Nigeria. Hence, library management in Nigeria should maintain the current working atmosphere and ensure improvement to sustain the good working experience.
2. The study revealed that, in the joint effect of the three positive organizational behaviors tested, job characteristics have little contribution regarding job demand among librarians in Nigeria. Therefore, the librarians should give adequate attention to understanding their job characteristics.
3. Libraries in Nigeria should ensure proper training of librarians for effect service delivery to their community of users.
4. The introduction of information communication and technology will improve librarians’ ability to interact with users without physical contact. This will aid reference services in libraries.
Based on the study, the level of job demand among librarian in Nigeria was very low on the fact that most libraries in Nigerian do not over stress their staff. As a result of this, librarians were also found having positive organizational behaviors and performing their best in carrying out their library routines and disseminating information to users. Generally, there was a high level of performance among the librarians. Hence, libraries should maintain the culture of organizational positivity among the librarians.
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2Department of Medicine, Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, Library, Victoria Island Lagos, Nigeria
Received: 07-Jun-2021 Published: 28-Jun-2021
Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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