Research Article - (2022) Volume 12, Issue 4

Bibliometric and Visualized Analysis of the Top 100 Most Cited Articles on Marburg Virus

Mohamed Idhris*, Manuelraj Peter*, Spurgeon Anandraj Samuel*, Abdurahiman Pattukuthu*, Helan Petricia Devasagayam*, Mohammed Barkath Ali* and Anand Pandiyarajan*
*Correspondence: Mohamed Idhris, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Tel: +9944862282, Email: Manuelraj Peter, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: Spurgeon Anandraj Samuel, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: Abdurahiman Pattukuthu, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: Helan Petricia Devasagayam, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: Mohammed Barkath Ali, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: Anand Pandiyarajan, Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email:

Author info »


Background: The Marburg virus, also known as Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (MHF), is closely related to the Ebola virus. The Marburg virus causes severe illness and fever, which can lead to shock or death. The study's objective is to explore the most influential 100 cited articles on the Marburg Virus.

Method: The bibliometric study was conducted using the Web of Science (WoS) database and the search words "Marburg virus" on April 26th, 2022. R-studio and Citespace (5.8.R3) were used to analysis data from the Web of Science database to identify main information, citation analysis, keyword analysis, country-wise production, and Keyword Cluster analysis of authors.

Results: A total 100 articles with the most citations out of total 1179 articles are separated for analysis. These articles appeared in 36 different publications. The number of publications is highest in the United States, followed by Germany, Switzerland, and Canada. With 22 publications, the Journal of Virology is the most widely read. The total number of citations is 4486, indicating that the Journal of Virology is the most authoritative journal in the field of Marburg virus research. The most articles were published in 1998 and 1999 (n=8 each), followed by 2000, 2009, and 2012 (n=6 each). Keywords were divided into 11 clusters: Keywords such as Marburg Virus, Ebola Virus, Hemorrhagic Fever, Glycoprotein, Infection, Protein, Identification, Disease, Gene, and Cell are frequently used this analysis.

Conclusion: Knowledge of such viruses found in any other country and large number of research articles related to newly found such viruses are mostly coming from European countries.


Information Marburg Virus, Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Bibliometric Analysis, Infections.


The Marburg virus has caused emergence and spread in Sub-Saharan Africa and is capable of causing severe illness with a high case fatality rate. In August of 1967, laboratory employees in Marburg, Germany, and Belgrade, Yugoslavia were infected with a hitherto undiscovered pathogenic agent (Aborode, et al., 2022). Initially, 3 patients with the particular associated contagious disease were admitted to the healthcare department from the College of Marburg. These people had been doing work in a Marburg vaccine plant, where vaccines and serum are created (Brauburger, et al., 2012). The three individuals had an immediate connection with the eco-friendly monkeys or their own organs (Dulin, et al., 2021). After that quickly became conscious of 3 more cases within Frankfurt that evidently got the condition in the same period. The circumstances had been similar in that will all patients experienced been handling materials from monkeys (Fedewa, et al., 2018).

The patients were treated illness was described as starting all of a sudden with extreme discomfort, myalgia, headache, and a rapid accept temperature of up to 39°C or a lot more. The source of the infection appeared to be Photography equipment green apes (Chlorocebus aethiops), The Marburg virus has emerged and spread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, causing severe illness with a high case fatality rate (Geisbert, et al., 2010). In the month of August 1967, the etiologic agent was isolated, characterized, and determined in less than three months thanks to the collaboration of scientists from Marburg and Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg (Keshwara, et al., 2019). The pathogen was known as Marburg virus after the city with the most cases, and it even represented the first isolation of a filovirus. During the convalescence phase of the 1967 outbreak, sexual transmission was suspected because a virus antigen was detected in the patient's sperm (Longini, et al., 2022).

Review of Literature

Aborode stated his research during the Covid quickly learning from and applying the Ebola response to address the Marburg virus, Guinea Republic has strengthened their border disease surveillance to enable speedy detection and confirmation of the virus within their neighboring countries and other distant Countries. The three individuals had an immediate connection with the eco-friendly monkeys or their own organs .

Longini in his research vaccine is considered an achievement if its approximate effectiveness is greater than 50% and its precision is high enough to rule out true efficacy of less than 30%. This will necessitate approximately 150 total endpoints, or confirmed Marburg virus disease cases, per vaccine/comparator combination. Interim analyses will be performed after 50 and 100 events, respectively. The statistical analysis of the trial will be combined across the various types of designs.


Keshwara Marburg Virus (MARV) is a virus that, like Ebola virus, causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic disease. In contrast to EBOV, only a few vaccines against MARV have been developed, and researchers do not know what types of immune responses are required to protect against MARV. Fedewa his stated that we show a filovirus genus-specific restriction to MARV in a cell line and offer the first reptile cell line that replicates a filovirus at large titer. Our findings imply that there might be distinctions between the natural host spectrum of Marburg and Ebola viruses. There is no specific treatment for Marburg virus disease. Supportive hospital therapy should be utilized, which includes balancing the patient's fluids and electrolytes, maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure, replacing lost blood and clotting factors, and treatment for any complicating infections.

Results and Discussion

Data analysis

The following incident occurred 8-10 years later, when an Australian tourist who hitchhiked through Zimbabwe was in a hospital in St. Johannesburg, South Africa, and infected two others before dying. Secondary cases are usually restored (33 percent case death rate). Following that, there have recently been reports of small MARV outbreaks in Kenya and Uganda. The largest outbreaks were in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from 1998 to 2000, and Angola from 2004 to 2006. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there were 154 cases and 128 deaths. In Angola, the largest cluster involved 252 cases and 227 deaths. Throughout the Angola outbreak, it was assumed that chlamydia spread through contaminated transfusion equipment in the pediatric ward (Martini, et al., 1968) (Table 1).

Description Results
Main information about data  
Timespan 1975:2018
Sources (Journals, Books, Etc) 36
Documents 100
Average years from publication 17.5
Average citations per documents 219.6
Total citations 21957
Average citations per year per doc 14.34
References 2830
Document types  
Article 86
Article; Proceedings paper 5
Editorial material 2
Letter 1
Note 1
Review 4
Review; Book chapter 1
Document contents  
Keywords plus (ID) 412
Author's keywords (DE) 80
Authors 684
Author appearances 1012
Authors of single-authored documents 1
Authors of multi-authored documents 683
Authors collaboration  
Single-authored documents 1
Documents per author 0.146
Authors per document 6.84
Co-authors per documents 10.1
Collaboration index 6.9

Table 1: Main Information about the Data and Citations

The key information’s like total citations with coverage years, total citations, average citations, document type details, author details and author collaboration details are categorizes in the Table 1. In this analysis we have selected hundred publications with more citations for scrutiny (Figure 1).


Figure-1: Database of Web Science

We analysis this article using the Web of Science (WOS) database is regarded as one of the most widely known and well established resources in citation analysis on April 26th, 2022. Key words included "Marburg Virus" with (TS=Topic Search), the total 1179 results are found with no time limitation, abstract availability, study type, or research subjects’ limitations. Following a thorough search, all retrieved articles were sorted by the number of citations. Following a thorough search, all retrieved articles were sorted by the number of citations, and more than 100 articles with more citations are being analyzed (Table 2 and Figure 2).

Year N TC MeanTC MeanTC Citable Years
per art per year
1975 1 237 237 5.04 47
1982 1 228 228 5.7 40
1992 1 125 125 4.17 30
1993 2 368 184 12.69 29
1994 1 117 117 4.18 28
1995 3 601 200.33 22.26 27
1996 3 749 249.67 28.81 26
1997 1 433 433 17.32 25
1998 8 1741 217.63 72.54 24
1999 8 1772 221.5 77.04 23
2000 6 1351 225.17 61.41 22
2001 3 604 201.33 28.76 21
2002 4 892 223 44.6 20
2003 5 1340 268 70.53 19
2004 4 848 212 47.11 18
2005 4 842 210.5 49.53 17
2006 3 490 163.33 30.63 16
2007 4 740 185 49.33 15
2008 1 144 144 10.29 14
2009 6 1376 229.33 105.85 13
2010 4 724 181 60.33 12
2011 5 2084 416.8 189.45 11
2012 6 998 166.33 99.8 10
2013 3 420 140 46.67 9
2014 2 488 244 61 8
2015 5 1278 255.6 182.57 7
2016 4 707 176.75 117.83 6
2017 1 148 148 29.6 5
2018 1 112 112 28 4
Grand Total 100 21957      

Table 2: Citation Analysis and Topic Search per Year


Figure-2: Frequency and Number of Citations.Equation

Table 2 shows the frequency and number of citations, as well as the average number of citations and the number of citable years. The first article, with (n=1) 237 citations, was published in 1975 after the 100 most frequently cited papers were identified. The citation frequency of works written after 1975 had increased dramatically in comparison to earlier years. None of the papers published in the next six years, from 1976 to 1981 and 1983 to 1991, ranked in the top 100 due to the low number of citations. We also discovered that 2011 had the most overall citations (n=5), followed by 1999 (n=8) (Table 3).

Source Free Citation %
Journal of Virology 22 4486 20.43
Journal of Infectious Diseases 10 1799 8.19
Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America 8 2456 11.19
Virology 8 1534 6.99
Lancet 4 1700 7.74
Emerging Infectious Diseases 3 432 1.97
Nature 3 1318 6
Nature Medicine 3 772 3.52
Plos Pathogens 3 692 3.15
Virus Research 3 565 2.57
Cell 2 237 1.08
Embo Journal 2 356 1.62
Jama-Journal of The American Medical Association 2 629 2.86
Molecular Cell 2 514 2.34
New England Journal of Medicine 2 420 1.91

Table 3: Top Sources with Highly Citations

The journal of Virology (n=22) received the most citations for Marburg virus research, with 4486 citations, followed by the Journal of Infectious Diseases, which received 1799 citations with 10 frequencies (Table 4).

Rank Occurrences Keyword
1 55 Marburg Virus
2 25 Ebola Virus
3 20 Hemorrhagic Fever
4 19 Glycoprotein
5 18 Infection
6 12 Protein
7 11 Identification
7 11 Disease
8 10 Gene
9 8 Cell
10 7 Nonhuman Primate
10 7 Vesicular Stomatitis Virus
10 7 Messenger RNA
10 7 Outbreak
10 7 Human Immunodeficiency Virus
11 6 Rhesus Monkey
11 6 Congo
11 6 Postexposure protection
11 6 Dendritic Cell
11 6 Double Stranded RNA
11 6 Guinea Pig
11 6 Ebola
12 5 Receptor
12 5 Antibody
12 5 Replication
12 5 Filovirus
12 5 Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
12 5 Dc Sign
12 5 Transcription
12 5 Monkey
13 4 Endothelial Cell
13 - Marburg Virus Disease
13 4 Haemagglutinin
13 4 Kikwit
13 4 Electron Microscopy
13 4 Expression
13 4 Marburg
13 4 Response
13 4 Cellular Entry
14 3 Envelope Protein
14 3 Nucleotide Sequence
14 3 Domain
14 3 Mouse Model
14 3 Protects Nonhuman Primate
14 3 Hendra Virus
14 3 Vaccination
14 3 System
14 3 Live
14 3 Mechanism
14 3 Immunity

Table 4: Keyword Analysis in Different Infectious Diseases

The top 100 most cited publications yielded 492 total keywords (keywords plus 412 and author's keyword 80). The 50 keywords that were mentioned three keywords or more were listed in Table 4 (Reynolds, et al., 2017). Marburg Virus was the top-ranking keyword in the over all, with 55 Occurrences. Thus, there are fourteen rank orders created from the total of fifty keywords. In this table 14th rank have the most number of keywords with 11 numbers (Table 5).

Cluster Size Mean Label (LSI) Label (LLR) Label (MI)
ID (Year)
0 49 2001 glycoprotein, virus, protein, endocytosis, cholesterol | guinea pig, infection, prophylaxi, replication competent, ebola Cell, entry, cholesterol, tumor necrosis factor, membrane association viral receptor, element, smallpox
1 43 2008 hemorrhagic fever, viral disease, guinea pig, small molecule, infection | immunity, response, prophylaxi, model, macaque hemorrhagic fever, immunity, mouse model, challenge, nonhuman primate double blind, hamster, antiviral active
2 38 2001 marburg virus, zaire, glycoprotein, filovirus, immunization | fluorogenic 5 nuclease assay, hemorrhagic fever, lassa fever, diagnosis, rapid detection Zaire, filovirus, experimental infection, rhesus monkey, lassa fever  bind, complex, west Africa
3 36 2007 marburg virus, congo, postexposure protection, persistent infection, virus infection | ebola virus, hendra virus, nipah virus, emerging infectious diseases, bat origin congo E-, outbreak  E-kikwit,
E-reemergence, Marburg virus disease 
philippine, hendra virus in flying-foxes
4 32 1998 ebola virus, vpu protein, cell surface, particle, hiv 1 vpu | replication, identification, gene, envelope protein, ebola domain, particle, fusion, glycosylation, replication  linked n acetylglucosamine, envelope
5 32 1997 gene, envelope protein, identification, vpu protein, cell surface | ebola virus, marburg virus, herpes simplex virus 1, expression, cloned cdna respiratory syncytial virus, p protein, genome replication, gene, expression  terminal domain, l polymerase protein
6 25 2005 marburg virus, herpes simplex virus 1, influenza a virus, ns1 protein, double stranded rna | nf kappa, matrix protein, vesicular stomatitis, tyrosine kinase, antiviral response double stranded RNA, NF kappa b, cellular entry, endothelial cell, i interferon  transcription factor, influenza
7 25 1998 atomic structure, escherichia coli, coiled coil, hemagglutinin, HIV 1 gp41 | complete nucleotide, cdna clone, late assembly, rous sarcoma, atomic structure hemagglutinin, membrane fusion, messenger RNA, gag protein, pathogenicity  gag protein, pathogenicity, conforma
8 23 2004 infection, marburg virus, primate, influenza a virus, cdna | alphavirus, replicon, ebola, infection, duck rubella infection, activation, lipid raft microdomain, t cell response, vp  lipid raft microdomain, t cell response
9 22 2008 haemorrhagic fever, electron microscopy, ebola virus, hepatitis c virus, cationic amphiphiles | sars coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, attachment factor, hepatitis c virus, cationic amphiphiles haemorrhagic fever, calcium channels, cationic amphiphiles, autopsy, pathology  calcium channels, cationic amphiphiles
10 11 2001 c-type lectin, asialoglycoprotein receptor, subunit h1, carbohydrate recognition domain, x-ray crystal structure x-ray crystal structure, c-type lectin, carbohydrate recognition domain, subunit, asialoglycoprotein receptor  marburg virus, ebola virus, x-ray
Note: LSI: Latent Semantic Indexing; LLR: Log Likelihood Ratio; MI: Mutual Information.

Table 5: Keyword Cluster Analysis by LSI, LLR, and MI

The above Table 5 is divided by 10 clusters. These all clusters have divided by three Labels like LSI-Latent Semantic Indexing, LLR-LogLikelihood Ratio, MI-Mutual Information. The Cluster ID Zero has highest number of clusters. (n=49) followed by cluster one has forty-three size. The remaining clusters have similar cluster sizes (Figure 3 ).


Figure-3: Country Wise Production of Marburg Virus

In Table 6, it has displayed country wise production in the research of Marburg virus. At the end of this overall research the United States of America got first ranks with 241 frequencies followed by Germany has second rank with 63 frequencies and Switzerland has 32 frequencies with third ranks (Table 6).

Region Frequencies
USA 241
Germany 63
Switzerland 32
Canada 24
South Africa 18
UK 17
Japan 13
Netherlands 11
Australia 10
France 8
Uganda 7
Belgium 4
Kenya 4
Gabon 3
Denmark 2
Guinea 2
Norway 2
Austria 1
China 1
Mali 1
Philippines 1
Russia 1
Sierra Leone 1
Singapore 1
Spain 1
Sweden 1
Thailand 1

Table 6: Country Wise Distribution and Frequencies

The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa highlighted the danger filoviruses represent. 11,323 people died and 28,646 were infected with the Ebola virus during the three-year outbreak (Suschak, et al., 2019). As per the current situation, new viruses like Ebola and corona are spreading around the world and causing people a lot of suffer (Siegert, et al., 1968). Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in creating viable Marburg virus vaccines (Towner, et al., 2016). Despite a recent pandemic in Uganda and the astonishingly high mortality rate among Marburg illness victims, there are still many gaps in our understanding of Marburg infection vaccinations (Vanmechelen, et al., 2021). Clinical preliminary studies on the vaccination against human Marburg infection are currently scarce, and those that have been conducted have had poor immunogenicity. The findings in this research may help with the urgent need to create a safe, efficient Marburg virus vaccine, which could help to stop the spread of this deadly virus and shield communities all over the world from this threat (Wan, et al., 2020).


The research is based on the Bibliometric study on the Marburg virus, using Citespace and RStudio software for visual analysis. This research on the Marburg Virus is generally increasing year after year. Globally, the United States, China, and Germany are the top three countries in this study. It is necessary for various countries to enhance their exchanges and collaboration. Among the research Sources, Journal of Virology is the highest influence on achievements with (n=22). As a result, we must expand research into this type of virus and disease transmission. Future directions include effective drug therapy and vaccine research.


Author Info

Mohamed Idhris*, Manuelraj Peter*, Spurgeon Anandraj Samuel*, Abdurahiman Pattukuthu*, Helan Petricia Devasagayam*, Mohammed Barkath Ali* and Anand Pandiyarajan*
Department of Library Affairs, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam-32242, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Received: 09-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. IJLIS-22-79342; Editor assigned: 14-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. IJLIS-22-79342 (PQ); Reviewed: 06-Dec-2022, QC No. IJLIS-22-79342; Revised: 13-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. IJLIS-22-79342(R); Published: 20-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2231-4911.22.12.841

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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